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Citation Guide: Engineering

Citation help for popular styles such APA, MLA, and Chicago, as well as some of the less common styles such as ACS and CSE.


Key factors to remember when using AI tools for class assignments:

  • Ensure professor's permission
  • Follow course / university policies related to AI
  • Use the writing / citation style determined by your professor / course
  • Acknowledge the AI source used

Currently, MLA, APA, and Chicago Styles have addressed how to cite AI sources. Please see these tabs in this citation guide for specific examples.

IEEE has addressed AI in its author guide:

Guidelines on AI-Generated Text
The use of artificial intelligence (AI)–generated text in an article shall be disclosed in the acknowledgements section of any paper submitted to an IEEE Conference or Periodical. The sections of the paper that use AI-generated text shall have a citation to the AI system used to generate the text.


From ACM Citation Style and Reference Formats

In-text Citations:

  • Use numbers in brackets for citations [1].
  • Separate multiple citations with commas [1, 2].
  • If mentioning the author in a sentence, include only the year in brackets after their name:  " This is consistent with Maji et al., [2024] ... 


Journal Articles:

[1] Xiaoning Feng, Xiaohong Han, Simin Chen, and Wei Yang. 2024. LLMEffiChecker: Understanding and testing efficiency degradation of large language models. ACM Trans. Softw. Eng. Methodol. (May 2024).

Books / eBooks:

[1] Navneet Ghedia, Chandresh Vithalani, Ashish M. Kothari, and Rohit M. Thanki. 2021. Moving Objects Detection Using Machine Learning. Cham: Springer International Publishing AG. 


[1] Diptyaroop Maji, Noman Bashir, David Irwin, Prashant Shenoy, and Ramesh K Sitaraman. 2024. The green mirage: Impact of location- and market-based carbon intensity estimation on carbon optimization efficacy. In Proceedings of the 15th ACM International Conference on Future and Sustainable Energy Systems (e-Energy '24). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 13–24.

From ACS Quick Style Guide

Journal Articles:

Wang, P.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Lin, X.; Qiu, X. Biomass-Based Antibacterial Hybrid Engineering Hydrogel for Efficient Solar Steam Generation. Chem Bio Eng. 2024, 1 (3), 252–263. DOI: 10.1021/cbe.3c00121.

Xian, W.; Zhu, C.; Lai, Z.; Guo, Q.; Wu, D.; Meng, Q.-W.; Wang, S.; Ma, S.; Sun, Q. Harnessing Solar-Salinity Synergy with Porphyrin-Based Ionic Covalent-Organic-Framework Membranes for Enhanced Ionic Power Generation. Chem Bio Eng. 2024. DOI: 10.1021/cbe.3c00119.

eBook with Editor(s): 

Women in Mechanical Engineering : Energy and the Environment, 1st ed.; Bailey, M., & Shackelford, L. Eds.; Springer International Publishing AG, 2022. DOI: 

eBook Chapters:

Hammond, C. Crystal Symmetry. In The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction, 4th ed.; International Union of Crystallography Texts on Crystallography, Vol. 21; Oxford University Press, 2015; pp 99−134. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738671.003.0004

Conference Proceedings:

Nilsson, A.; Petersson, F.; Persson, H. W.; Jönsson, H.; Laurell, T. Manipulation of Suspended Particles in a Laminar Flow. In Micro Total Analysis Systems 2002, Proceedings of the μTAS 2002 Symposium, Nara, Japan, November 3−7, 2002; Baba, Y., Shoji, S., van den Berg, A., Eds.; Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2002; Vol. 2, pp 751−753. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-010-0504-3_50

From ASCE Author-Date Reference Guide

Journal Articles: Use the CAS Source Index to obtain official journal abbreviations

Ye, M., L. Li, D.-Y. Yoo, H. Li, X. Shao, and C. Zhou. 2023. “Mechanistic understanding of precast UHPC segmental beams with external tendons and epoxy joints subject to combined bending and shear.” Struct. Eng.  280, 115698.
NOTE: After the first author, initials of additional authors come before surnames.

Krinos, A. I., N. R. Cohen, M. J. Follows, and . Alexander. 2023. “Reverse engineering environmental metatranscriptomes clarifies best practices for eukaryotic assembly.” BMC Bioinf. 24(1), 74. DOI: 10.1186/s12859-022-05121-y
NOTE: If journal content identifiers are present, use in place of page numbers.
Offerman, S.E. 2019. Critical materials: Underlying causes and sustainable mitigation strategies. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company.
Conference Proceedings:
Li, Y., & Zhang, Q. 2021. “A framework for incorporating sustainability design concepts into performance-based engineering in civil and environmental engineering education.” In Association for Engineering Education - Engineering Library Division Papers, Houghton, MI: ASEE,


Publishing in ASCE Journals

From  ASME Guidelines

In-text Citations: Use bracketed numbers [1] in the order of appearance with a corresponding reference list at the end.

  • Example: Prusa [1] showed that the width of the plume decreases under these conditions.
  • Two citations - separate by a comma [1,2]
  • More than two citations - separate by a dash [3-8]


Journal Articles:

[3] Masthan Vali, P. S. N., and Murali, G., 2024, “Battery Thermal Management System on Trapezoidal Battery Pack with Liquid Cooling System Utilizing Phase Change Material,” J. Heat Mass Transfer, 146(1), 011003.


[19] Yaghoubi, Majid and Tavakoli, Hamed, 2022, Mechanical Design of Machine Elements by Graphical Methods. Springer International Publishing AG, New York. 


Conference Proceedings:

[21] Wions, T. T., and Mills, C. D., 2006, “Structural Dynamics in Parallel Manipulation,” Proceedings of the IDETC/CIE, New Orleans, LA, September 10-13, 2005, ASME Paper No. DETC2005-99532, pp. 777-798.


From IEEE Citation Guidelines.

In-text citations use sequential numbers in brackets [ ] to link references within your report. These numbers correspond to a single reference list, regardless of source type. Each reference number should be enclosed in square brackets on the same line as the text, before any punctuation, with a space before the bracket. Examples:

  • “. . .end of the line for my research [13].”
  • “The theory was first put forward in 1987 [1].”
  • “Scholtz [2] has argued. . . .”
  • “Several recent studies [3, 4, 15, 22] have suggested that. . . .”

Reference List Examples


[1]    M. C.Fischer, Comparators. Cham: Springer International Publishing AG, 2022.  [E-book] Available: ProQuest Ebook Central.

Journal Articles:

[3]    Z. Siddiqui, M. Sonkki, K. Rasilainen, J. Chen, M. Berg, M. E. Leinonen, and A. Pärssinen, “Dual-band dual-polarized planar antenna for 5G       millimeter-wave antenna-in-package applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 71, no. 4, Apr. 2023,  [Online serial]. Available: doi: 10.1109/TAP.2023.3240032. [Accessed November 12, 2023].

Papers Presented in Proceedings

[5] P. Leone, D. L. Gillihan, and T. L. Rauch, "Web-based prototyping for user sessions: Medium-fidelity prototyping," in Proc. 44th Int. Technical Communications Conf., 1997, pp. 231-234.

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