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Citation Guide: APA

Citation help for popular styles such APA, MLA, and Chicago, as well as some of the less common styles such as ACS and CSE.


Basic Citation Formats

These are basic guidelines to citing sources for your works cited page using APA 7 style.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.

Shanker, J. L., & Cockrum, W. A. (2014).  Reading inventory (6th ed.). Pearson Education.

Book with an Editors Instead of Authors

Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Flood, J., & Anders, P. L. (Eds.). (2005). Literacy development of students in urban schools: Research and policy. International Reading Association.

Journal article read in print or from a database, no doi assigned

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 513.

Journal article, with doi

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

Baniya, S., & Weech, S. (2019). Data and experience design: Negotiating community-oriented digital research with service-learning. Purdue  Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement, 6(1), 11–  16.                                                                      

Note: For more information on DOI numbers see the box below or refer to the APA Style Manual, 7th Edition.

Journal article with three to twenty authors

Miciak, J., Stuebing, K. K., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Barth, A. E., Fletcher, J.
       M., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2014).  Cognitive attributes of adequate and
       inadequate responders to reading intervention in middle school.  School
       Psychology Review, 43
, 407-427.

Dissertation from a database

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database or Archive Name.

Crittenden, E. M. (2013).  The effectiveness of two spelling approaches on
        vocabulary development for Hispanic learners (Publication No.
3560525) [Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University].
        ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. 


Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Clarke, B. L. (2014). Rurality and reading readiness:  The mediating role of
       parent engagement
(R2Ed Working Paper No. 2014-1).  The National Center for Research on      Rural Education 

Citing Electronic Journal Articles with DOIs

APA 7 Style Rule for DOI

When citing journal articles (print or electronic), APA style requires the inclusion of the DOI, if it is available (see example below).

What it is:

A DOI is a unique "digital object identifier" that is permanently attached to a specific article. It is a cross of numbers and letters, and always begins with a "10."

When & How to Cite a DOI:

If a DOI is available for an article being cited, it must be included (as the final element, without a full stop/period) in the reference.

When used, the DOI replaces an article's URL in the reference.

Neither the URL nor an access date are included when the DOI is used in a reference.

Locating the DOI

You can find the DOI either...

1) in the database record (there will be a field in the article record that says "DOI") or

2) on the first page of the article, usually near the copyright information.

No Apparent DOI?

If you don't see a DOI in the online article information or printout, you can query it's DOI status by clicking and entering in your citation information.

Further Info

For more information, consult the APA Style Manual. The APA website also has a helpful video tutorial on finding DOIs.

Creating an APA Research Paper

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