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Global Economic History by
Publication Date: 2011-11-15
Why are some countries rich and others poor? In 1500, the income differences were small, but they have grown dramatically since Columbus reached America. Since then, the interplay between geography, globalization, technological change, and economic policy has determined the wealth and povertyof nations. The industrial revolution was Britain's path breaking response to the challenge of globalization. Western Europe and North America joined Britain to form a club of rich nations by pursuing four polices - creating a national market by abolishing internal tariffs and investing intransportation, erecting an external tariff to protect their fledgling industries from British competition, banks to stabilize the currency and mobilize domestic savings for investment, and mass education to prepare people for industrial work. Together these countries pioneered new technologies that have made them ever richer. Before the Industrial Revolution, most of the world's manufacturing was done in Asia, but industries from Casablanca to Canton were destroyed by western competition in the nineteenth century, and Asia wastransformed into "underdeveloped countries" specializing in agriculture. The spread of economic development has been slow since modern technology was invented to fit the needs of rich countries and is ill adapted to the economic and geographical conditions of poor countries. A few countries - Japan,Soviet Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and perhaps China - have, nonetheless, caught up with the West through creative responses to the technological challenge and with Big Push industrialization that has achieved rapid growth through investment coordination. Whether other countries can emulate thesuccess of East Asia is a challenge for the future.
Ecosystem-Aware Global Supply Chain Management by
Publication Date: 2013-01-01
Over the last two decades, several textbooks, research papers, and best practice cases have been published on supply chain management. However, globalization has created dispersed supply chains which are vulnerable and dependent on entities and factors that are exogenous to the supply chain. Resource scarcity, environmental regulations, government policies, political unrest, economic instability, and natural disasters are a few examples of how non-supply chain factors influence the way supply chains are managed. These exogenous factors are not just risk sources but can also be venues for innovation and growth.This book presents the notion of supply chain ecosystem to holistically model all the factors that interact with the supply chain and influence the flow of goods, information, and finance. Through a number of real-life case studies, the authors use the ecosystem framework to study the governance, risk, innovation, and performance issues in supply chain management, and also to redesign the management techniques for global supply chains. In doing so, this book makes a unique contribution to the theory and practice of supply chain networks.
Little Soldiers by
Publication Date: 2011-03-08
Germany's war against the Soviet Union raised a small army of child soldiers. Thousands of those below the enlistment age served with regular and paramilitary formations, even though they were not formally mobilised or allowed at the front. For several decades after the war, these youngstersplayed an important part in Soviet remembrance culture, though their true experiences were obscured by the myth of the Great Patriotic War. Situated at the crossroads of social, cultural, and military history, Little Soldiers is the first to tell the story of the Soviet Union's child soldiers in a critical and systematic fashion. Focusing on the mechanisms and psychological consequences of propaganda on Soviet children, as well as theircombat deployment, Kucherenko adopts a three-tier approach to writing the history of childhood: 'from above', 'from below', and 'from within'. A wide variety of new sources provide insight into young soldiers' combat motivations and the roles they played in the field, as well as their routineexperiences and relationship with older comrades. Far from being victims, Soviet child soldiers emerge as independent social actors capable of making choices about their behaviour .Little Soldiers interconnects with matters of increasing importance: the role of propaganda in military conflicts, the totalization of warfare, child-soldiering, and social reflexivity.
Ordinary Violence by
Publication Date: 2014-01-01
Addresses the many forms of global violence against women and shows how the psychology of individuals, institutions, and societies perpetuate the oppression of women. * Contains the most recent research on trafficking, mail order brides, and comfort women * Explains the roles of power, inequality, and gender hierarchy in violence against women * Examines the belief system behind institutionalized violence, including such acts as honor crimes and dowry deaths * Links current forms of violence with relics of the past--foot binding, comfort women, and charity girls
, Health Care Administration
, Political Science
, Public Administration
, Social Sciences