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MOT - New Cohort Library Orientation

Writing & Citing

Your professor will indicate the format or style manual to use for your assignments. For Occupational Therapy assignments, the style is usually APA 7.

If you require use of a different style guide, contact me for information on other available resources.

Citation vs. Reference

Citations and references are terms that tend to be used interchangeably in discussions of crediting sources for writing. The truth is that they are related but distinct terms both concerned with crediting sources. 

Citations are visual cues in the text of your writing that call the reader's attention to material you have borrowed from a source. They are normally very short and of two varieties:

1. Footnote or endnote citations -sequential superscripted numbers following the concluding punctuation of a sentence, or

2. Parenthetical - usually a listing of author last name(s) and a publication year, enclosed in parentheses and appearing between the concluding word of a sentence and the concluding punctuation. **APA 7 uses parenthetical (Author, Date) citation style.**

 References provide the full publication details required to identify and track down a specific source. In the context of academic writing they tend to appear together, at the conclusion of a paper and can be labelled (depending on the style guide) "Works Cited," "References," "Reference Lists," "Bibliography." 

If you can't find in Ready Reference, ask the Circulation Staff.

Chapter 10 of APA 7 consists of reference templates for each major publication type, plus specific examples addressing variations.¹ 

The chart below lists the pages where you can find the APA 7 template or model references for specific types of publication.

Publication Type Section APA 7 pages
Periodical Reference Template 10.1 316
Books & Reference Books Reference Template 10.2 321
Edited Book Chapters & Entries in Reference Works Reference Template 10.3 326
Reports & Gray Literature Reference Template 10.4 329
Conference Sessions & Presentations Reference Template 10.5 332
Dissertations & Theses Reference Template 10.6 333
Unpublished Works Reference Template 10.8 335
Tests, Scales & Inventories Reference Template 10.11 340
Social Media Reference Template 10.15 348
Webpages & Websites Reference Template 10.16 350


¹ Chapters 8-9 of APA 7 cover the mechanics of in-text citation & referencing.

Note: In late 2019 the American Psychological Association published the 7th edition of its Publication Manual, and  some refer to APA 6th edition. Check the edition of the resources before consulting.

APA 7th ed. style

APA Style Blog

APA Style Supplemental Resources

Citation Guide: APA (Muntz Library)**

Purdue Online Writing Lab (Purdue Owl)

Purdue Online Writing Lab - APA Style

Reference Managers

Reference managers store, organize, and properly format references for citation in your papers. They also generate bibliographies.

Some are commercial products requiring purchase or annual subscription. Others are available for free.

The list below describes four. Three are free (EndNote Basic, Mendeley, Zotero). Sciwheel is subscription-based. But this is paid for by the university.


EndNote Basic



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